Poland And Hungary

Poland

Hungary

State of the nation at the beginning 

of the revolution:

Prior to the revolution, Poland in the 1980s was no stranger to political protests.  In 1987 alone there were 234 “collective forms of protest”.  However by 1987, protests were on the rise.  That year 3,353 people were known to have taken part in work stoppages.[1]  Given the high frequency of protests occuring in Poland during the later half of the 1980s, it is easy to understand why the Poland’s uprisings happened prior to the other Warsaw pact nations.

In addition to the political climate in Poland at the time, it is important to note the economic climate as well.  In 1980 the Soviet Union, responding to a decline in oil production, made drastic cuts to the amount of oil supplied to Warsaw pact nations created economic strain in the Poland.[2]  Additionally, by the 1980s, Poland, along with the rest of the Warsaw pact countries was suffering from a sharp rise in the price of consumer goods that was hurting the average citizen.[3]

Prior to the revolution, Hungary was known as being “the most liberal of communist governments”.[1]  However, there was a historical precedent for using violence to crackdown against anti-government demonstrations. On October 24th, 1956, Soviet tanks were sent into Hungary to crush political protesters.[2]

Aside from the prior agreement between Hungarian and Soviet governments, commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, the Hungarian government officially requested the aid of these Soviet forces to end political dissent. [3]

By the 1980s, Soviet forces were still in Hungary,[4]  Even if Soviet troops had not already been inside of Hungary, it’s not hard to imagine that they could have been deployed quickly.  to aid the Hungarian government.  Therefore, one must realize that the risk of being attacked by members of the Soviet army was most certainly a realistic fear of any protestor involved in anti-government demonstrations.

It is important however, to understand the economic climate in Hungary during the lead up to this political revolution.  In 1980 the Soviet Union, responding to a decline in oil production, made drastic cuts to the amount of oil supplied to Warsaw pact nations created economic strain in the Hungary. [5]

Additionally, by the 1980s, Hungary, along with the rest of the Warsaw pact countries was suffering from a sharp rise in the price of consumer goods that was hurting the average citizen. [6]

Head(s) of the Regime in Power:

Wojciech Jaruzelski

From 1981 until 1989, Poland was led by Wojciech Jaruzelski.  When Jaruzelski originally became head of Poland, his original response to the rise of Solidarity and the economic crisis gripping Poland was a heavy crackdown.  This crackdown consisted of the imposition of Martial law and the banning of the trade-union’s operations. However, in 1988, Jaruzelski’s regime, responding to domestic pressure, lifted the ban.[4]

 Despite being known for his opposition to Solidarity, and initial eagerness to crackdown on oppositions, Jaruzelski was not immune to internaitonal and domestic pressure.  Jaruzelski became one of the members of his party that persuaded the rest of the PUWP to hold talks with Solidarity in 1989.  [5]

János Kádár

János Kádár first came to power in 1956, after successfully leading local government forces aiding Soviet armed forces during the Hungarian uprising.  Kádár, with Soviet support, remained leader of Hungary up until the revolution began.[7] Being associated with ending an anti-communist movement that had swept Hungary three decades ago, and having been in power for so many years,  it is easy to understand why the Hungarian government saw a need to remove the elderly Kádár and his supporters from power and replace him.[8]  The following year, as Hungary became a democracy, Kadar died from pneumonia,  just a few months after the Hungarian dictatorship he had led for over 32 years was also laid to rest.[9]

 

 

Karoly Grosz

In May 1988, Kádár’s replacement, Karoly Grosz, began his career as the new leader of Hungary.  Grosz was considered more of a “technocrat” than an autocrat, and therefore it made sense for him to be placed in charge of helping lead the economic transition from a communist nation to a nation with open markets.[10]  However, when it came to political reforms, Grosz wanted the Hungarian Socialist workers party to retain control of the nation, and for that control to be maintained using peaceful methods.  Grosz did not want to see a repeat of the bloodshed that had happened in 1956.  [11]

Composition of the Regime in power:

The Polish United workers party, commonly abbreviated as PUWP, ruled poland from 1948 until the beginning of the uprising.  In theory other political parties existed, but in reality these political parties were nothing more than subservient allies of the PUWP. [6]

It is worth noting that the PUWP, after heavy pressure from opposition groups, accepted political and economic reforms.   As early as 1986, there were moves by the PUWP to reach out to different nongovernment groups, including the Catholic church.  [7]

Prior to the revolutions, Hungary had been run by the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, often abbreviated as the HSWP.  The HSWP was the unopposed single ruling party since 1956.   To understand the HSWP and their response to the uprising in the late 1980s, one needs to understand one of the most important events to occur during its early hisoptry

The HSWP was formed in 1948, but tit was not until 1956, that the party achieved it’s ruthless and single minded reputation.[12]  In 1956, there was a popular uprising against the communist government that was in power at this point..  Consequently fight was between HSWP members Imre Nagy and János Kádár over how to respond to the anti-communist revolution.   Kádár won this fight largely because he had the support of the Soviet Union.  A  heavy Soviet crackdown against the national uprising also made Kádár leader of Hungary and  established the Hungarian socialist party as the only official political party of Hungary.  This Soviet response undoubtedly discouraged political dissent within the party.  [13]

Despite this fairly recent history of Soviet backed repression, there were still pro-reformists within the HSWP, silently waiting for the opportunity to institute economic and political reform.  By 1989 pro-reform members of the party were in upper positions within the party[14], and by July of that year, the main debate within the HSWP was not whether or not a democratic transition should occur, but whether elections should take place in September or November of that year.[15]

Even as internal divisions within the party continued to fight, it was clear to the HSWP that things were quickly getting out of there control.[16]

Description of regime’s opposition:

Poland’s opposition consisted of heavily of unions.  It’s main opposition organization was called Solidarity and it was formed in August 1980, after several strikes on the Baltic coast and other Polish industrial areas rocked Poland.  The Polish government responded to these strikes with a heavy crackdown and Solidarity was banned and forced to move underground.  During this time, solidarity was heavily helped by Western Labor organizations and Polish emigre groups.[8]  After, the uprising began, Solidarity was officially legalized in 1988.  [9]

Towards the end of the uprising, Solidarity had gained partial control of the government and was playing an active role in the process of reforming the system through its parliamentary club.[10]  It had also gained western support and backing.[11]

Despite Hungary’s bloody history, in the late 1980s, the communist government was permitted opposition associations to form.  The largest of these groups was known as the alliance of young Democrats.  These opposition associations were diverse in their goals, but they were united in their opposition towards the communist government.  [17]  By March 1989, these different groups joined together to form “Opposition Round table”. [18]  At that same time, a Soviet Premier Gorbachev made a speech publicly declaring that his government would not intervene in Hungary’s internal affairs.[19]

It was clear to Hungary’s opposition that 1956 would not be reapeated in 1989.  Now seemed like the perfect time to demand a sit down with the HSWP.   It is also worth noting, by this point, that Hungary’s opposition had connections to similar protest movements that were occurring in other Warsaw pact nations at the time. The sharing of information and resources between different anti-government movements, undoubtedly aided each of these anti-communist movements, as they spread.  [20]

Regime/Government response to uprising:

Jaruzelski’s government had already banned Solidarity in 1981. [12]  Jaruzelski’s government crackdown would not be forgotten and would have surely remained on the minds of pro-polish reformers, throughout their uprising.  It is also worth noting, as previously stated, that as early as 1986, Poland was reaching out to organizations that were not associated with the Polish government, including the the Catholic Church.

Government documents from 1987 show that Poland was already concerned about the West’s reaction to the polish government’s response to the protests.  [13]

By 1988, both political and economic reforms were being implemented by the Polish government.[14]  Around the same time, discussions were being held between different high ranking members over whether or not to lift the ban on Solidarity. [15]

On February 6, 1989, the Polish Government entered negotiations with members of Solidarity, in Warsaw Referred to as the “Round Table Talks, they ended in April with an agreement between both parties for free elections for a newly created senate, the establishment of a president and Solidarity’s recognition as a political party.  [16] By early June of 1989, Poland had held its first open democratic elections, and Solidarity had won 99 of 100 senate seats.[17]

By July, Solidarity had formed its own Parliamentary club and it was preparing for the future political changes that they were implementing. [18]  That summer, the Parliamentary club would be preparing to create and lead a coalition government that would lead Poland and continue reforming the political system.  http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117204  By August 24 of that year,  Tadeusz Mazowiecki was elected the first non-communist Prime Minister in Poland.[19] Despite heavy objections for conservative communist hardliners from other Warsaw nations,[20] Poland’s government was falling more and more under the control of Solidarity.  

Photo taken during negotiations between PUWP and Solidarity

 

“Anna M.” Anna M. Accessed May 01, 2016. http://acienciala.faculty.ku.edu/hist557/lect19b.htm.

On June 23rd 1988, the hungarian socialist workers party decided to establish a committee to examine Hungary’s political, economic, and social development over the last 30 years since the 1956 revolution.  The committee reached the decision that the failed revolution in 1956 was a “popular uprising” and not a “counter-revolution” as János Kádár and the Soviet government had always insisted.  This claim led to the opening of the division within the Hungarian socialist workers party over the issue. [21] 

By June 10th, 1989 ORT had achieved an agreement with the Hungarian Socialist workers Party to hold talks.[22]  The ORT Had proved that diplomacy could prevent violence, and talks between the opposition and the government officially began on June 19th, 1989.  By September of that year, the border between Austria and Hungary had been opened.  Despite complaints from its allies, including claims from members of the East German government that Hungary was “betraying socialism”  by opening its border, the Hungarian government was continuing to negotiate with its protestors.   [22] While the claims of the East German government may or may not have been unfair, it is worth noting that HSWP’s decision to open the border had an effect on East Germany’s own conflict between pro-and anti-communist citizens. [23] As the border was being opened and observers insided and outside Hungary reacted, the talks continued, ORT desired for these talks to be between just the HSWP and ORT, but in return for agreeing to talk with a unified opposition, the HSWP got the concession that the talks would be tripartite.  A “third side” came to the talks.  This third side consisted of pro HSWP organizations and associations.    It is apparent that the third side was largely a government ploy to take power away from the ORT.   Eventually both the government and Opposition Round Table had agreed to a democratic transition.   After arguments between the government and members of the opposition over whether elections should be direct or parlimentary, a referendum was passed on the 26th of November that settled the matter.  No longer called a “people’s republic”, the Hungarian republic would hold its first Parliamentary elections from March through April 1990.  These elections resulted in the “Hungarian Democratic Forum”, becoming the largest minority political party.  Known in Hungary as the MDF, this political party built a coalition government led by the Young democrat, President Árpád Göncz, Hungary’s first noncommunist president.[24]

 

GDR citizens cross take advantage of the opening of the Hungarian border to enter Austria.

Burke, Patrick. “Eastern European Revolutions of 1989.” In The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace. : Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195334685.001.0001/acref-9780195334685-e-205.

Bibliography

Polish Sources

  1. “[Polish Government] Report, ‘A Synthesis of the Domestic Situation and the West’s Activity,’ Warsaw,” August 28, 1987, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Personal papers of Andrzej Paczkowski. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112187
  2. Leonid Brezhnev, “Economic Woes for the Warsaw Pact,” Making the History of 1989, Item #268, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/268 (accessed May 04 2016, 6:32 am).
  3. Barnabas de Bueky, “Price Increases in Eastern Europe with Special Regard to Hungary,”Making the History of 1989, Item #688, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/688 (accessed May 04 2016, 6:32 am).
  4. “Jaruzelski, Wojciech.” In The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary, edited by Deverson, Tony, and Graeme Kennedy. : Oxford University Press, 2005. http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195584516.001.0001/m-en_nz-msdict-00001-0027548.
  5. “General Wojciech Jaruzelski – Obituary.” The Telegragh, May 25, 2014. Accessed April 27, 2016. General Wojciech Jaruzelski – obituary.
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. “Poland”, accessed May 04, 2016,http://www.britannica.com/place/Poland/Government-and-society.
  7. “Memorandum of Conversation of Polish Officials Concerning a Proposed Consultative Council,” October 18, 1986, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Private papers of Stanislaw Stomma. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112186
  8. Burke, Patrick. “Eastern European Revolutions of 1989.” In The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace. : Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195334685.001.0001/acref-9780195334685-e-205.
  9. “Report on a Working Conference [of Opposition Leaders],” September 01, 1988, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Personal papers of Andrzej Stelmachowski. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112192
  10. “Minutes of the Meeting of the Presidium of the Citizens’ Parliamentary Club, 1 August 1989, 8 p.m. ,” August 01, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Archives of the Bureau of Senate Information and Documentation. Translated by Jan Chowaniec for CWIHP http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117203
  11. “[Polish Government] Report, ‘A Synthesis of the Domestic Situation and the West’s Activity,’ Warsaw,” August 28, 1987, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Personal papers of Andrzej Paczkowski. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112187
  12. Burke, Patrick. “Eastern European Revolutions of 1989.” In The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace. : Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195334685.001.0001/acref-9780195334685-e-205.
  13. “[Polish Government] Report, ‘A Synthesis of the Domestic Situation and the West’s Activity,’ Warsaw,” August 28, 1987, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Personal papers of Andrzej Paczkowski. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112187
  14. “Speech by Mr. Józef Czyrek at a founding meeting of the Polish Club of International Relations,” May 11, 1988, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Personal papers of Andrzej Stelmachowski. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112188
  15. “Report from Andrzej Stelmachowski to Lech Walesa,” September 06, 1988, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Personal papers of Andrzej Stelmachowski. Translated for CWIHP by Jan Chowaniec. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112472
  16. “Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989.” Milestones: 1989–1992. Accessed May 04, 2016. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/fall-of-communism.
  17. “Transcript of the Central Committee Secretariat Meeting of the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR),” June 05, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, PZPR Secretariat files, copies obtained by the Institute for Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences and published in “Tajne dokumenty: Biura Politycznego i Sekretariatu KC, Ostatni rok wladzy 1988-1989” (London: Aneks Publishers, 1994) pp. 390-398. Translated by Jan Chowaniec for The National Security Archive. Published in National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 22. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116228
  18. “Minutes from a Meeting of the Presidium of the Citizens’ Parliamentary Club, 15 July 1989 ,” July 15, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Archives of the Bureau of Senate Information and Documentation. Translated by Jan Chowaniec for CWIHP http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117201
  19. “Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989.” Milestones: 1989–1992. Accessed May 04, 2016. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/fall-of-communism.
  20. “Soviet Ambassador to Romania E. M. Tyazhel’nikov, Record of a Conversation with N. Ceauşescu and Message for Gorbachev,” August 19, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Noveishei Istorii (RGANI), Fond 5, Opis’ 102, Delo 80, Listy 107-110. Obtained and translated for CWIHP by Mark Kramer. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/121614

Hungarian Sources

  1. “Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989.” Milestones: 1989–1992. Accessed May 04, 2016. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/fall-of-communism. Paragraph 6
  2. “Report from Soviet Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs Perevertkin ,” October 24, 1956, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Fond 89, Perechen 45, Dokument 7, Center for the Storage of Contemporary Documentation (TsKhSD), Moscow http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/111967
  3. “Andropov Report, 28 October 1956,” October 28, 1956, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, AVP RF, f. 059a, op. 4, p. 6, d. 5, l. 12; translation from The Hungarian Quarterly 34 (Spring 1993), 104. Published in CWIHP Bulletin 5, p. 30. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/111089
  4. “Memorandum of Conversation between President Mikhail Gorbachev, President Rezsö Nyers, and General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (HSWP), Károly Grósz, Moscow,” July 24, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, MOL, M-KS 288 – 11/4461. ö.e. Translated by Csaba Farkas. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/113163
  5. Leonid Brezhnev, “Economic Woes for the Warsaw Pact,” Making the History of 1989, Item #268, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/268 (accessed May 04 2016, 7:16 am).
  6. Barnabas de Bueky, “Price Increases in Eastern Europe with Special Regard to Hungary,”Making the History of 1989, Item #688, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/688 (accessed May 04 2016, 7:16 am).
  7. “Kádár, János.” In World Encyclopedia. : Philip’s, http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001/acref-9780199546091-e-6136.
  8. “Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989.” Milestones: 1989–1992. Accessed May 04, 2016. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/fall-of-communism.
  9. Saxon, Wolfgang. “Janos Kadar of Hungary Is Dead at 77.” The New York Times. 1989. Accessed May 04, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/07/obituaries/janos-kadar-of-hungary-is-dead-at-77.html?pagewanted=all.
  10. Burke, Patrick. “Eastern European Revolutions of 1989.” In The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace. : Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195334685.001.0001/acref-9780195334685-e-205.
  11. “Conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and Karoly Grosz, General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, March 23-24, 1989 ,” March 24, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, MOL M-KS-288-11/4458 o.e. Document obtained by Magdolna Baráth. Translated by Csaba Farkas. Published in “Political Transition in Hungary, 1989-1990; International Conference, June 12, 1999,” Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; A Compendium of Declassified Documents and Chronology of Events. Also published in National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 22. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116225
  12. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. “Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP)”, accessed May 04, 2016, http://www.britannica.com/topic/Hungarian-Socialist-Party.
  13. “Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989.” Milestones: 1989–1992. Web. 01 May 2016.
  14. “Hungary’s Role in the 1989 Revolutions.” BBC News. 2009. Accessed May 04, 2016. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8036685.stm.
  15. “Minutes of the Meeting of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party [HSWP] CC Political Executive Committee,” July 24, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, MOL M-KS-288-5/1072 ö.e. Translated by Csaba Farkas. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/113165
  16. “Report of the President of Hungary Rezso Nyers and General Secretary Karoly Grosz on Talks with Gorbachev in Moscow (excerpts),” July 25, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, “Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt Központi Bizottágának 1989. évijegyzokönyvei.” [Minutes of the 1989 meetings of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party Central Committee] Editors: Anna S. Kosztricz, János Lakos, Karola Vágyi, Mrs. Németh, Lászlo Soós, György T. Varga. Magyar Országos Levéltár [Hungarian National Archives], Bp. 1993, Vols. I-II]. Published in National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 22. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116234
  17. “Hungary 1989.” Princeton University. Accessed May 02, 2016. https://www.princeton.edu/~pcwcr/reports/hungary1989.html.
  18. Burke, Patrick. “Eastern European Revolutions of 1989.” In The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace. : Oxford University Press, 2010. http://www.oxfordreference.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195334685.001.0001/acref-9780195334685-e-205.
  19. “Anna M.” Anna M. Accessed May 04, 2016. http://acienciala.faculty.ku.edu/hist557/lect19b.htm.
  20. “Czechoslovak Ministry of Interior Memorandum, ‘The Security Situation in the CSSR in the Period Before 28 October’,” October 25, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, A. Lorenc et al., T8/91 vol. XIX., envelope 1, #79- 84 (also vol. XXI, #2242-2247). Published in Czech in Organizace a Øízení, Represe v ÈSSR: Operaèní Štáby Generála Lorence 1988-1989, Edice Dokumentù Vol. 4/II (Úøad Dokumentace a Vyšetøováni Zloèinù Komunismu 1998). Translated for CWIHP by Caroline Kovtun http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117220
  21.  “Minutes of the Meeting of the HSWP CC Political Committee,” January 31, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Magyar Országos Levéltár (MOL) [Hungarian National Archives, Budapest], M-KS- 288-5/1050 o.e. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/112483 
  22. “Agreement about the Commencement of Substantial Political Negotiations between the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, the Members of the Opposition Roundtable and the Organizations of the Third Side,” June 10, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Published in Ellenzéki kerekasztal. Portrévázlatok. [Opposition Roundtable. Political Portraits. Ed. and interviews by Anna Richter] (Budapest: Ötlet Kft, 1990), pp. 294-300 http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/113161
  23. “Transcript of the SED Politburo Session held on 5 September 1989,” September 05, 1985, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, National Security Archive. Translated by Christian Hetzner. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/120813
  24. “Letter from GDR Ambassador to Hungary, Gerd Vehres, to Foreign Minister Osker Fischer ,” September 10, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, National Security Archive. Translated by Christiaan Hetzner. http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/120815
  25. “Agreement about the Commencement of Substantial Political Negotiations between the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, the Members of the Opposition Roundtable and the Organizations of the Third Side,” June 10, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, Published in Ellenzéki kerekasztal. Portrévázlatok. [Opposition Roundtable. Political Portraits. Ed. and interviews by Anna Richter] (Budapest: Ötlet Kft, 1990), pp. 294-300 http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/113161